TAB C - Chronology of Environmental Sampling in the Balkans
US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine conducts environmental survey in Bosnia-Herzegovina. There were 214 soil samples collected at 46 U.S. camps. Samples were screened for gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentrations. Observed radioactive concentrations in the soil fell within the expected ranges for naturally occurring radioactive materials. Selected samples were analyzed for specific radionuclides. Only cesium-137 concentrations, attributed to fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl accident, were slightly elevated.
The Bulgarian Ministry of Environment and Water begins radiological monitoring along the Bulgarian border with Yugoslavia. Sixty air, 6 rainfall, 80 soil, 56 river water, and 21 vegetation samples show background uranium levels.
The Belgian Medical Service collects 152 soil samples from Kosovo, finding no trace of depleted uranium (DU).
A Greek team collects nine soil samples and checks water and air for gamma radiation in Urosevoc, Kosovo, but finds no pollution.
The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation conducts research in Serbia on spent DU ammunition, but identifies no health hazards.
|October 30 -November 4||
The first Italian survey of areas in Kosovo where troops were deployed finds no radiation above background levels, except for areas immediately adjacent to destroyed tanks or DU penetrators.
The Swedes find elevated levels of heavy metals near camps in Kosovo.
French experts study a shot-up tank near Likovac, Kosovo, recover a DU penetrator, but identify no health risk from DU to military or local populations.
|March 11-16||An American team collects samples in Kosovo, but finds no measurable levels of DU.|
|March 12-14||The first of four Kosovo Force (KFOR) surveys begins. The others were on January 19, 20 and 21, 2001. None of the surveys note any radiation hazard.|
A Greek team checks for alpha radiation in the soil, water, and air of Kosovo, but finds no elevated levels.
|April 11-18||A second Italian survey in Kosovo finds no radiation above background levels, except for areas immediately adjacent to destroyed tanks or DU penetrators.|
|August 3-10||A third Italian survey in Kosovo finds no radiation above background levels, except for areas immediately adjacent to destroyed tanks or DU penetrators.|
|November 5-17||A UN Environmental Programme Field Assessment Mission to Kosovo finds slightly higher radioactivity levels at or around holes left by DU ammunition. The team recovers seven intact penetrators and one penetrator fragment.|
|November 21-24||A fourth Italian survey in Kosovo finds no radiation above background levels, except for areas immediately adjacent to destroyed tanks or DU penetrators.|
|December 21||An Italian survey in Bosnia-Herzegovina finds no elevated levels of radioactivity.|
|January 5-6||A Bulgarian survey of the air, water, and soil in Suva Reka, Kosovo, indicates no health risk to personnel in the area of the base camp and at the construction sites.|
A Polish team collects soil, water, and air samples in seven Kosovo and Macedonia locations, but finds no environmental hazards.
A Portuguese team monitored 52 sites in Kosovo, collecting 52 soil, 9 water, and 3 air samples, along with food samples from 5 townsall normal except for the soil samples at two sites within a few meters of DU penetrator impacts.
The Greek Atomic Energy Commission collects 70 soil, 6 water, and 10 air samples from the Greek area of responsibility in Kosovo, but detects no DU.
A Portuguese team visits 36 sites in Bosnia-Herzegovina, collecting 34 soil, 8 water, and 6 air samples, along with food samples from 5 townsall normal.
Hungary collects various samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo and concludes that it is unlikely that its troops were exposed to DU.
A SFOR investigation team surveys a factory site in Hadzici, Bosnia-Herzegovina and finds a negligible risk from the DU penetrators and no significant health hazard to the local population.
After thirteen additional surveys, the team rules out a radiological hazard from DU in the sites visited.
A UK Ministry of Defense team visits 7 of 8 DU attack sites in the British-led sector and one major base. DU residue was confirmed at only one site. No widespread contamination was detected. Three virtually intact penetrators were recovered from a sparsely populated area. Results from this survey are to be used to develop the methodology for a more extensive survey in August 2001.
The Greek Atomic Energy Commission collects 10 soil, 1 water, and 2 air samples from the Greek area of responsibility in Visoco, Bosnia-Herzegovina. An analysis is pending.
|January||A Bulgarian team analyzes soil samples from Kosovo and 56 water samples from the Kosovo boundary rivers, and finds normal concentrations of uranium.|
|January||A German team
visits a site west of Prizren, Kosovo, and finds no elevated radiation or DU rounds. The
team also visits Zur, Kosovo, close to the Albanian border, where it recovers two DU
penetrators, but finds elevated radiation only within 30 centimeters of where the
penetrators were found.
The German team had conducted soil and water surveys at various locations in Kosovo in 1999 and 2000 and found no elevated radiation levels.
A Greek team analyzes 70 soil samples from Kosovo and 10 from Visoco, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and finds no elevated radiation levels.
|January 22 - 31||A World Health Organization expert team visits Kosovo and gathers information. Finds no evidence to link medical cases in Kosovo to exposure to DU. |
The World Health Organization publishes "Depleted Uranium: Sources, Exposure and Health Effects."
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